New music styles: how the challenger calls the tune - CSH Vienna

New music styles: how the challenger calls the tune


Feb 6, 2019

[CSH Press Release]

 

What drives fashion changes?

 

A quantitative network analysis of almost eight million musical albums, released between 1956 and 2015, offers an answer to a century-old debate.

 

[Vienna, February 6, 2019] A research team led by scientists at the Complexity Science Hub Vienna (CSH) found that fashion cycles in music are driven by outsider groups. These outsiders challenge the dominant music style by strongly contrasting the preferences of the current elite, for instance, by using different instrumentation or new rhythms. “They use counter-signaling,” explains Stefan Thurner, one of the authors of a new paper in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface. “To put it very bluntly: With a new style, music producers try to slap the old one in the face,” says Thurner.

 

The social dynamics that lead to new fashions and trends have long been, and still are, subject to heated debate and contradictory theories in sociology. The “costly signaling theory,” for example, claims that elites try to establish distinctions by using styles that are too costly to be adopted by non-members of the group. In contrast to this top-down approach, random-pattern theories postulate that elites randomly pick features from non-elite groups and incorporate them to create a new style from the bottom-up.

 

Peter Klimek and Stefan Thurner, both CSH and Medical University of Vienna, and Robert Kreuzbauer, University of Surrey, propose an alternative explanation for the evolution of new styles: elite competition in the form of opposition—scientifically called counter-signaling. Elites are defined in this paper as social groups with disproportionate access to certain resources. In the context of music production, elites are those who dominate the most popular music style(s) at a given time.

 

The scientists tested the three approaches of costly signaling theory, random-pattern theories and counter-dominance signaling, with a large dataset containing almost eight million musical albums, released between 1956 and 2015. The data were derived from Discogs, a crowdsourced online music database. Discogs provides detailed user-generated information on millions of albums, such as artists or instrumentation, and the assignment of each record to one or several of 422 different musical styles.

 

“We first analyzed whether non-elites imitate elements like music arrangements, sounds or production techniques of current elites,” says Peter Klimek. “We found that this happens a lot. After the breakthrough of the American rock band Nirvana, for instance, a whole wave of alternative rock bands adopted elements of Nirvana’s grunge style in the 1990s.”

 

Next the researchers tested the costly-signaling theory: Would the most popular musicians abandon their style once newcomers started to copy them? “We found the contrary,” replies Klimek. “Elites rather like to see others adopt their symbols and styles. It might be a sign of their cultural influence.”

 

Finally, they examined whether new musical styles emerge at random, as random-pattern theories would suggest. They did not, Klimek states. “New styles clearly show counter-signals that provocatively challenge the currently popular styles.” The grungy rock of Nirvana thumbed its nose at highly polished stadium rock of the ’80s with bands like Queen or Guns N’ Roses; punk was a counter-signal to the hugely popular “soft rock” of the ’70s with musicians like Elton John, Simon & Garfunkel or Tina Turner leading the charts, says the complexity scientist. “Once the new style is adopted by a sufficiently large number of followers, its representatives become the new elite and the cycle starts from the beginning.”

 

“We demonstrate with a strictly data-driven, quantitative method that new fashions in music gain their impulse from a strong opposition to current trends,” Stefan Thurner points out. “This should also be tested for in other domains, be they architecture, art, fashion, or even politics and science. In the case of musical styles, the counter-signaling hypothesis best explains how novelty emerges.”

 

Beyond styles, the paper shows “how Big Data analytics can be used to come to a better understanding of the many layers of complex dynamics in human society—here, how elites come to power, persist for a while, and eventually get overthrown,” concludes Thurner.

 

Peter Klimek, Robert Kreuzbauer, Stefan Thurner, Fashion and art cycles are driven by counter-dominance signals of elite competition: Quantitative evidence from music styles, J. R. Soc. Interface 20180731. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2018.0731

 

 


Event

Brainhack Vienna


Dec 11, 2019Dec 13, 2019

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by David B. Saakian: “Solving the evolutionary dynamics on fluctuating Landscapes”


Nov 18, 2019 | 11:0012:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Visitor

Helena Miton, CEU, SFI


Oct 24, 2019

Event

CSH Talk by Helena Miton: “Explaning the spread and persistence of maladaptive medical beliefs”


Oct 24, 2019 | 15:0016:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Press

Cooperative creativity experiment reveals most efficient team structures


Phys.org, Oct 15, 2019

Press

Forscher ermittelten optimale Zusammensetzung für konstruktive Teams


APA Science, Oct 14, 2019

Press

Statins May Affect Your Bone Health


New York Times, Oct 8, 2019

News

Oct 6, 2019

Out now: Sustainability colloquium | The Videos

Press

Czy leki na cholesterol powodują osteoporozę? [Polish]


wprost, Oct 4, 2019

News

Sep 30, 2019

Do statins increase osteoporosis risk?

News

Jun 11, 2019

Predicting success in show biz

News

Jun 5, 2019

13 Reasons Why | watching suicide in TV can be contagious

Event

Brainhack Vienna


Dec 11, 2019Dec 13, 2019

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by David B. Saakian: “Solving the evolutionary dynamics on fluctuating Landscapes”


Nov 18, 2019 | 11:0012:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Visitor

Helena Miton, CEU, SFI


Oct 24, 2019

Event

CSH Talk by Helena Miton: “Explaning the spread and persistence of maladaptive medical beliefs”


Oct 24, 2019 | 15:0016:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Press

Cooperative creativity experiment reveals most efficient team structures


Phys.org, Oct 15, 2019

Press

Forscher ermittelten optimale Zusammensetzung für konstruktive Teams


APA Science, Oct 14, 2019

Press

Statins May Affect Your Bone Health


New York Times, Oct 8, 2019

News

Oct 6, 2019

Out now: Sustainability colloquium | The Videos

Press

Czy leki na cholesterol powodują osteoporozę? [Polish]


wprost, Oct 4, 2019

News

Sep 30, 2019

Do statins increase osteoporosis risk?

News

Jun 11, 2019

Predicting success in show biz

News

Jun 5, 2019

13 Reasons Why | watching suicide in TV can be contagious

News

Oct 6, 2019

Out now: Sustainability colloquium | The Videos

News

Sep 30, 2019

Do statins increase osteoporosis risk?

News

Jun 11, 2019

Predicting success in show biz

News

Jun 5, 2019

13 Reasons Why | watching suicide in TV can be contagious

News

May 29, 2019

D4Dairy annual meeting at the Hub

News

Apr 11, 2019

Shocking Economics!

News

Apr 3, 2019

In need of ‘complexity economics’

News

Mar 20, 2019

Complex societies gave birth to big gods

News

Feb 6, 2019

New music styles: how the challenger calls the tune

News

Jan 30, 2019

Garcia, Bail, Rahwan, Couzin: Check out the videos!

News

Jan 1, 2019

Our new “Visions for Complexity”

News

Dec 4, 2018

A sad day for science: CEU forced out of Hungary

Event

Brainhack Vienna


Dec 11, 2019Dec 13, 2019

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by David B. Saakian: “Solving the evolutionary dynamics on fluctuating Landscapes”


Nov 18, 2019 | 11:0012:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Visitor

Helena Miton, CEU, SFI


Oct 24, 2019

Event

CSH Talk by Helena Miton: “Explaning the spread and persistence of maladaptive medical beliefs”


Oct 24, 2019 | 15:0016:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Workshop: “Modeling Neolithic Crises”


Oct 17, 2019 | 9:30Oct 18, 2019 | 17:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by Célian Colon: “Coupling transport and supply chains to analyze the impact of disasters – an application to the United Republic of Tanzania”


Oct 17, 2019 | 15:0016:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by William Schueller: “Active control of complexity growth in a multi-agent model”


Oct 18, 2019 | 15:0016:00

Event

CSH Planning Workshop on the Historical Dynamics of Social Norms and Sentiments Underlying Cooperation


Oct 21, 2019 | 9:30Oct 22, 2019 | 16:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Talk

“Embracing Opportunities of Livestock Big Data Integration with Privacy Constraints”


Franz Papst.

Oct 25, 2019

University of Deusto

Event

CSH Talk by Jim Bennett: “A model of agrarian state–nomadic confederation interaction in the Old World”


Oct 16, 2019 | 15:0016:00

Visitor

Simon Levin, Princeton University


Oct 13, 2019Oct 16, 2019

Visitor

Saadi Lahlou, London School of Economics


Oct 13, 2019Oct 15, 2019

Press

Cooperative creativity experiment reveals most efficient team structures


Phys.org, Oct 15, 2019

Press

Forscher ermittelten optimale Zusammensetzung für konstruktive Teams


APA Science, Oct 14, 2019

Press

Statins May Affect Your Bone Health


New York Times, Oct 8, 2019

Press

Czy leki na cholesterol powodują osteoporozę? [Polish]


wprost, Oct 4, 2019

Press

El fin de una era: qué pasará cuando los ‘likes’ desaparezcan [Spanish]


El País, Oct 3, 2019

Press

Recomendamos: El fin de una era: qué pasará cuando los ‘likes’ desaparezcan [Spanish]


etcétera, Oct 3, 2019

Press

Vamos deixar de ver “likes”. E agora? [Portuguese]


JN, Oct 3, 2019

Press

À forte dose, les statines augmentent le risque d’ostéoporose [French]


Pourquoi docteur?, Oct 3, 2019

Press

Die Zukunft des Regierens: Politik in der Computersimulation


Der Standard, Oct 2, 2019

Press

MERYNS Sprechzimmer: Online oder Ordination?


ORF III, Oct 2, 2019

Press

Dr. med. Tele Medizin: Wird Gesundheit digital?


ORF III, Oct 2, 2019

Press

STATINES : A forte dose, c’est le risque d’ostéoporose? [French]


Santé Log, Oct 1, 2019