New statistical tool kit fingerprints electoral fraud - CSH

New statistical tool kit fingerprints electoral fraud (not only) in Turkey [CSH Press Release]


Oct 5, 2018

The cheap and easy to use election observation

 

[Press release via AlphaGalileo]

 

An international research team led by Peter Klimek from the Complexity Science Hub Vienna proposes a new statistical method to diagnose voting irregularities and calculate their impact on the final results. The highly sensitive procedure shows the Turkish votes in 2017 and 2018 equally problematic.

 

 

(Vienna, Oct 5, 2018) Fair and free elections are at the core of democracy. Independent institutions like the OSCE try to monitor elections to ensure a fair and democratic process. However, a few hundred election observers cannot cover thousands of polling stations. Especially remote areas and smaller towns and villages are rarely monitored and thus prone to different sorts of electoral fraud.

 

A new combination of statistical methods can help uncover such irregularities and relate them to specific forms of malpractice. This includes even very subtle intimidations, like voting booths without curtains or extensive police presence near polling stations, as a new paper in PLOS ONE shows using the example of Turkey. The “tool kit,” proposed by a team of complexity scientists headed by Peter Klimek from the Complexity Science Hub (CSH) Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna, further allows them to estimate if the electoral fraud was strong enough to change the final results.

 

“Our method is fast, cheap, and easy to use,” explains Peter Klimek. “The only input we need is the election results.” Usually these lists are provided online within hours after an election. “Our tests display a very specific pattern: the fingerprint of the poll,” he points out. These fingerprints show places where manipulation can be excluded or hotspots where it occurred with high probability.

 

Unlawful polls in Turkey

In Turkey, for instance, the researchers found several districts with problematic fingerprints right after the constitutional referendum in 2017. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan used the referendum to replace the Turkish parliamentary system with a presidential system. The highly controversial poll was followed by an equally disputed snap election in June 2018 that installed Erdoğan as president with wide-ranging powers and his AKP party as the ruling force in parliament.

 

“We found clear statistical signs of intimidation at small polling stations in the referendum data,” says co-author Stefan Thurner from CSH Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna. “We also saw systematic and highly significant traces of ballot stuffing in about eleven percent of the stations.” Ballot stuffing means that multiple votes are submitted per person instead of one. “The numbers were just big enough to influence the outcome of the referendum towards a ‘yes’ in favor of the constitutional change,” says the complexity scientist.

 

The presidential and parliamentary elections in June 2018 show a similar pattern: The statistical tools produced the same fingerprints of fraudulent practices in the very same districts as in 2017. In this case, the digitally traceable aberrations were not large enough to change the final outcome, because the majority of the Turkish people voted in favor of Erdoğan and the AKP anyway. “Nevertheless, our findings confirm reports of undemocratic election procedures in Turkey,” says Stefan Thurner. “The patterns are similar to other controversial elections that we have analyzed in earlier works; for instance, the voting in Russia from 2003 onwards, in Venezuela from 2006 onwards, or in Uganda 2011.”

 

Election observation in the digital age

“Unlawful voting throughout the world could have been detected, or even prevented if these methods were systematically utilized for election monitoring,” says Peter Klimek. “The results from the 2017 referendum in Turkey, for example, could have been used to send observers to the most critical places. This would have helped to prevent the same kind of fraud in the 2018 elections.”

 

“We offer a simple and cheap method as an ideal extension to the common election observation,” Stefan Thurner adds. “Organizations like the OSCE are invited to catch up with the digital age and use the new tools of the 21st century.”

 

 

 

Publication:

 

R. Jiménez, M. Hidalgo, A. Hinteregger, S. Thurner, P. Klimek, “Forensic analysis of Turkish elections in 2017–2018.” PLOS ONE, 5 October 2018. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0204975

 

Additional information:

 

P. Klimek, Y. Yegorov, R. Hanel, S. Thurner, “Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities,” PNAS, 9 October 2012, 109 (41), 16469-16473

 

R. Jiménez, M. Hidalgo, P. Klimek, “Testing for voter rigging in small polling stations,” Science Advances Vol. 3, no. 6 (2017), e1602363

 

R. Jiménez, S. Thurner, L. R. Pericchi, P. Klimek, “Fraud Detection, Electoral,” Wiley StatsRef, 14 August 2018

 

 


Event

CSH Talk by Francisco A. Rodrigues: “Epidemic processes in single and multilayer complex networks”


Oct 19, 2018 | 15:0016:00

Visitor

Ladislav Kristoufek, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic


Oct 18, 2018Oct 19, 2018

Event

CSH Talk by Ladislav Kristoufek: “Looking for fundamentals in Bitcoin price”


Oct 18, 2018 | 15:3016:30

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Talk

“Complexity and financial / economic systems”


Stefan Thurner.

Nov 30, 2018 | 11:0013:00

Princeton University

News

Oct 10, 2018

THE BOOK IS OUT!!!

News

Oct 5, 2018

New statistical tool kit fingerprints electoral fraud (not only) in Turkey [CSH Press Release]

Press

Wenn der Computer macht, was er will


Wiener Zeitung, Sep 22, 2018

Press

Künstliche Intelligenz: Kann eine Maschine moralisch handeln?


Der Standard Online, Sep 18, 2018

Press

Wie ticken die Roboter? [offline]


Ö1 Digital Leben, Sep 11, 2018

Press

Machine Behaviour: Neues Forschungsfeld über Verhalten von Maschinen


APA Science, Sep 6, 2018

News

Jul 30, 2018

“We need a revolution in modelling sustainability”

News

Jul 20, 2018

“The science for a world of processes”

Event

CSH Talk by Francisco A. Rodrigues: “Epidemic processes in single and multilayer complex networks”


Oct 19, 2018 | 15:0016:00

Visitor

Ladislav Kristoufek, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic


Oct 18, 2018Oct 19, 2018

Event

CSH Talk by Ladislav Kristoufek: “Looking for fundamentals in Bitcoin price”


Oct 18, 2018 | 15:3016:30

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Talk

“Complexity and financial / economic systems”


Stefan Thurner.

Nov 30, 2018 | 11:0013:00

Princeton University

News

Oct 10, 2018

THE BOOK IS OUT!!!

News

Oct 5, 2018

New statistical tool kit fingerprints electoral fraud (not only) in Turkey [CSH Press Release]

Press

Wenn der Computer macht, was er will


Wiener Zeitung, Sep 22, 2018

Press

Künstliche Intelligenz: Kann eine Maschine moralisch handeln?


Der Standard Online, Sep 18, 2018

Press

Wie ticken die Roboter? [offline]


Ö1 Digital Leben, Sep 11, 2018

Press

Machine Behaviour: Neues Forschungsfeld über Verhalten von Maschinen


APA Science, Sep 6, 2018

News

Jul 30, 2018

“We need a revolution in modelling sustainability”

News

Jul 20, 2018

“The science for a world of processes”

News

Oct 10, 2018

THE BOOK IS OUT!!!

News

Oct 5, 2018

New statistical tool kit fingerprints electoral fraud (not only) in Turkey [CSH Press Release]

News

Jul 30, 2018

“We need a revolution in modelling sustainability”

News

Jul 20, 2018

“The science for a world of processes”

News

Jul 19, 2018

“Reflect on the way we produce knowledge”

News

Jul 16, 2018

Ob in Kunst oder Wissenschaft: Nutze deine Erfolgssträhne! [CSH Press Release]

News

Jul 15, 2018

“Avoid centralized control in teams”

News

Jul 9, 2018

Start a new global movement: City Olympics

News

Jul 8, 2018

“Make cities great again”

News

Jun 30, 2018

“We need to answer Why-questions”

News

Jun 20, 2018

Facebook data show gender divide [CSH Press Release]

News

Jun 18, 2018

Congrats, Helga Nowotny!

Event

CSH Talk by Francisco A. Rodrigues: “Epidemic processes in single and multilayer complex networks”


Oct 19, 2018 | 15:0016:00

Visitor

Ladislav Kristoufek, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic


Oct 18, 2018Oct 19, 2018

Event

CSH Talk by Ladislav Kristoufek: “Looking for fundamentals in Bitcoin price”


Oct 18, 2018 | 15:3016:30

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Talk

“Complexity and financial / economic systems”


Stefan Thurner.

Nov 30, 2018 | 11:0013:00

Princeton University

Event

CSH “Art at the Hub” Vernissage


Oct 17, 2018 | 18:0021:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Talk

“Where do all these distribution functions come from?”


Stefan Thurner.

Oct 30, 2018 | 14:5015:40

University of Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by Semeen Rehman: “Dependable, energy-efficient, and intelligent embedded computing for the Internet of Things”


Oct 12, 2018 | 15:0016:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Talk

“The air we breathe: Numbers don’t tell the full story”


Olga Saukh.

Nov 04, 2018 | 9:4010:40

Shenzhen, Southern University of Science and Technology

Talk

“Nur wer Sinn aus Daten ziehen kann, hat künftig eine Chance”


Stefan Thurner.

Oct 18, 2018 | 8:00Oct 19, 2018 | 17:00

Graz, Alte Universität

Event

CSH Talk by Christoph Fabianek: “Data Mobility”


Sep 27, 2018 | 15:00

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by Markus Strauss


Dec 14, 2018 | 15:0016:30

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Event

CSH Talk by Leonhard Horstmeyer


Dec 07, 2018 | 15:0016:30

Complexity Science Hub Vienna

Press

Wenn der Computer macht, was er will


Wiener Zeitung, Sep 22, 2018

Press

Künstliche Intelligenz: Kann eine Maschine moralisch handeln?


Der Standard Online, Sep 18, 2018

Press

Wie ticken die Roboter? [offline]


Ö1 Digital Leben, Sep 11, 2018

Press

Machine Behaviour: Neues Forschungsfeld über Verhalten von Maschinen


APA Science, Sep 6, 2018

Press

Stilkunde mit Big Data


ORF Science, Aug 29, 2018

Press

Berechenbare Bilder: Forscher erzählen Kunstgeschichte mit Big Data


APA Science, Aug 29, 2018

Press

Facebook Use Linked to Gender Equality


Scientific American, Aug 28, 2018

Press

Stephen Lansing: “Die Welt als Ganzes verstehen”


Die Presse, Aug 25, 2018

Press

Die Rechnung für das toxische Erbe der Menschheit


Der Standard Forschung, Aug 25, 2018

Press

Big Data soll menschlichen Einfluss sichtbarer machen


APA Science, Aug 24, 2018

Press

Künstliche Intelligenz: Europa fehlt digitale Infrastruktur


Der Standard, Aug 16, 2018

Press

Wer die Daten hat, entscheidet


Wiener Zeitung, Aug 16, 2018