Associations between multimorbidity patterns and subsequent labor market marginalization among refugees and Swedish-born young adults—A nationwide registered-based cohort study
Young refugees are at increased risk of labor market marginalization (LMM). We sought to examine whether the association of multimorbidity patterns and LMM differs in refugee youth compared to Swedish-born youth and identify the diagnostic groups driving this association.
We analyzed 249,245 individuals between 20–25 years, on 31 December 2011, from a combined Swedish registry. Refugees were matched 1:5 to Swedish-born youth. A multimorbidity score was computed from a network of disease co-occurrences in 2009–2011. LMM was defined as disability pension (DP) or >180 days of unemployment during 2012–2016. Relative risks (RR) of LMM were calculated for 114 diagnostic groups (2009–2011). The odds of LMM as a function of multimorbidity score were estimated using logistic regression.
2841 (1.1%) individuals received DP and 16,323 (6.5%) experienced >180 annual days of unemployment during follow-up. Refugee youth had a marginally higher risk of DP (OR (95% CI): 1.59 (1.52, 1.67)) depending on their multimorbidity score compared to Swedish-born youth (OR (95% CI): 1.51 (1.48, 1.54)); no differences were found for unemployment (OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.12, 1.17), 1.12 (1.10, 1.14), respectively). Diabetes mellitus and influenza/pneumonia elevated RR of DP in refugees (RRs (95% CI) 2.4 (1.02, 5.6) and 1.75 (0.88, 3.45), respectively); most diagnostic groups were associated with a higher risk for unemployment in refugees.
Multimorbidity related similarly to LMM in refugees and Swedish-born youth, but different diagnoses drove these associations. Targeted prevention, screening, and early intervention strategies towards specific diagnoses may effectively reduce LMM in young adult refugees.
Jiaying Chen, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz, Lisa Berg, Marie Norreda, Marit Sijbrandij, Peter Klimek, Associations between multimorbidity patterns and subsequent labor market marginalization among refugees and Swedish-born young adults—A nationwide registered-based cohort study, Journal of Personalized Medicine 11 (12) (2021) 1305