Scaling properties of d-dimensional complex networks
The area of networks is very interdisciplinary and exhibits many applications in several fields of science. Nevertheless, there are few studies focusing on geographically located d-dimensional networks. In this paper, we study scaling properties of a wide class of d-dimensional geographically located networks which grow with preferential attachment involving Euclidean distances through r −α A ij (αA ≥ 0). We have numerically analyzed the time evolution of the connectivity of sites, the average shortest path, the degree distribution entropy, and the average clustering coefficient, for d = 1, 2, 3, 4, and typical values of αA. Remarkably enough, virtually all the curves can be made to collapse as functions of the scaled variable αA/d. These observations confirm the existence of three regimes.
The first one occurs in the interval αA/d ∈ [0, 1]; it is non-Boltzmannian with very-long-range interactions in the sense that the degree distribution is a q-exponential with q constant and above unity. The critical value αA/d = 1 that emerges in many of these properties is replaced by αA/d = 1/2 for the β-exponent which characterizes the time evolution of the connectivity of sites. The second regime is still non-Boltzmannian, now with moderately long-range interactions, and reflects in an index q monotonically decreasing with αA/d increasing from its critical value to a characteristic value αA/d ≃ 5. Finally, the third regime is Boltzmannian (with q = 1), and corresponds to short-range interactions.
S. Brito, T. C. Nunes, L. R. da Silva, C. Tsallis, Scaling properties of d-dimensional complex networks, Phys. Rev. E 99(1) (2018)